Alternative Medicine

My Viagra story. Ladies, please, don’t read :)

Posted by Alternative Medicine on September 11, 2015 in Canadian Viagra with No Comments

I’ve started using Viagra occasionally just a couple of years ago. And believe me, this is the most powerful stuff known to mankind when it comes to new relations. The girls are crazy about me after the first night – they are bombarding me with messages, acting like they want to date me to get another portion of fun. You have to make the first impression – what comes next depends on how you can handle things. So let me share a couple of secrets with those looking to succeed with women.

My Viagra story. Ladies, please, don’t read :)

This is where you should buy it

Quality is something that really matters – you want get the desired result with poor quality products for sure. It took me plenty of time and a couple of hundred dollars to find an optimal option. I’ve been purchasing stuff from Canadian Health&Care Pharmacy for almost a year by now, and I understand perfectly that I’m not going to switch to another drugstore, even if they offer a more competitive pricing. This is the situation I’ve been into so many times – Viagra modifications and manufacturers are many, and finding the right one is not as easy as it may seem (I’m not even talking about scam and fraud risks on the way).

At Canadian Pharmacy you buy top quality products as these guys get their supplies directly from manufacturers, which not only explains the quality, but also affects the total price you pay. No, their pricing model is not the most affordable in the industry, but it is definitely below the average level. And it leaves nothing to be desired in terms of price-value ratio for sure. Moreover, if you are using (or planning to use) Viagra on a regular basis, Canadian Pharmacy is an ideal option – as you will be saving heaps of money on the long run.

And this is how you should take it

Be wise – use the annotation. Be smart – listen to your body. Viagra is a kind of pill that reacts differently in every person, so it make some time to pick up an optimal dosage. If it doesn’t work for the first time, don’t quit the idea of taking it for the second time, the cases when it demonstrates poor efficiency for the first time are not that rare. If you want to be 100% ready for fun at that very moment, you should better take a pill no less than 40 minutes before the anticipated sex (you may also want to consider oral jelly modifications later on, acting quicker and needs no water to be consumed). Do not overeat and exclude alcohol if you are planning to use Viagra – thus you will reduce the risk of adverse side effects and press for the maximum efficiency.

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Man’s hormone-dependent organ is the prostate.

Posted by Alternative Medicine on July 29, 2015 in Diseases with No Comments

The prostate is a hormone-dependent organ

The prostate is a hormone-dependent organ. Its growth is stimulated and its size and secretory function are maintained by the continued presence of serum testosterone at approximately eugonadal malelevels. Testosterone in the circulation is largely bound to proteins. Approximately 60% is bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and around 38% more loosely to albumin. Only 2–3% of circulating testosterone is unbound and diffuses into organs. Thereafter, it is subjected to a variety of steroid metabolic steps that regulate activity, and finally the inactivation of the steroid hormone. Over 95% of testosterone that enters the prostate is converted to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT binds to the same hormone receptor as testosterone, but its biopotency is considerably higher.

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There is an abundance of androgen receptors in the prostate, probably more than in any other tissue2. The result is that the prostate is capable of accumulating testosterone, and local concentrations of androgens are approximately ten times higher than in the circulation. In the adult prostate, androgens continuously play a role in the maintenance of the gland in the mature and differentiated state by homeostatic mechanisms that are androgen-dependent. Prostate size and plasma levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are decreased in androgen-deficient men, and increase again with androgen replacement, but not significantly exceeding the size and PSA levels in age-matched controls.

In a recent study, Bhasin and colleagues6 showed that, in healthy (18–35 years old) men whose endogenous testosterone production was almost totally suppressed by administration of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, PSA levels could be restored to normal by administration of 25 mg testosterone weekly, resulting in plasma testosterone levels of 125 ng/dl (4.3 nmol/1), while the reference range of testosterone is in the order of 8–24 nmol/1. Higher doses of testosterone replacement had no additional effect on plasma PSA levels. Prostate volumes were not measured in this study. So, on the basis of androgen replacement studies and the study by Bhasin and colleagues6, there is reason to believe that there is no linear relationship between prostate volume and PSA levels on the one hand and plasma testosterone levels on the other.

In men chronically abusing anabolic-androgen steroids (body-builders), the total prostate volume was not larger whereas the central prostate volume was approximately 20% larger, compared with age-matched controls; PSA levels were not different between the two groups. Above a threshold value of plasma testosterone there seems to be no additional effect on PSA values, while only supraphysiological doses increase the central prostate volume but not the total prostate volume. In summary, the prostate is an exquisitely androgen-dependent organ, capable of accumulating testosterone through its high androgen receptor content and amplifying the action of testosterone through reduction to DHT. For treatment prostate cancer you can watch this Canadian HealthCare website.

Via these mechanisms the prostate is capable of maintaining its function with relatively low-to-normal peripheral testosterone levels, higher levels not adding substantially to its size or to PSA production. The following addresses the potential risks of administration of testosterone to androgendeficient aging men, in particular the risks for benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and associated PSA levels, but first the rationale for androgen administration to a subgroup of aging men is discussed.

Research Canadian Health Care Mall: The Role of Aeromedical Transport

Posted by Alternative Medicine on January 15, 2015 in Canadian Health Care Mall, Heath Care with No Comments

Aeromedical transport (AMT) of seriously ill patients is no longer a rarity, but rather an everyday event. Indeed, as early as 1784, after the balloon flight demonstrations of the Montgolfier brothers, physicians began to consider the benefits their patients could gain from flight. Jean-Francois Picot theorized that not only could patients tolerate balloon flight, they would in fact benefit from purer air encountered at altitude. AMT using heavier-than-air machines was initiated in 1909, when Captain George Gosman built a plane specifically for this purpose. Aeromedical Transport

However, it was not easy to convince the government to approve further development of Gos-man’s aircraft following its destruction in a crash, and it was never used to transport actual patients. In 1917, the French Dorand AR II was the first air ambulance that actually carried patients. Over the next several decades, the “ambulance airplane” industry grew, mainly in the military. World War II saw great increases in the use of AMT. It has been estimated that more than one million patients were airlifted by the United States from all theaters of this conflict, with an overall death rate of only 4 in 100,000.

The Korean War brought new challenges and opportunities for AMT. In 1950, the use of the helicopter for the front-line medical evacuation of patients during combat was authorized. More than 17,000 patients were transported by Army helicopters alone from January 1951 to 1953. The outstanding medical evacuation system developed during the war in Vietnam owed much to the experience gained during the Korean conflict. The effective use of helicopters for AMT in Vietnam and their appearance almost nightly on domestic television kindled interest in their use for air evacuation in the civilian community. The recent conflict in the Persian Gulf has also emphasized the importance of AMT in military operations.

The marriage of aviation and medicine has expanded the reach of the critical care unit and other specialized units beyond an individual hospital. The incorporation of monitoring, ventilators, oxygen and suction, infusion pumps, etc, allows critical care therapy similar to that available within the hospital. Unfortunately, many advertised “air-ambulance” services are nothing more than business aircraft staffed by a moonlighting paramedic or nurse obtained on a “catch-as-can” basis by a charter aircraft company. There may be no medical direction at all and thus no practice standards, appropriate education of personnel, quality assurance, or medical control.

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Lung Transplantation Exacerbates Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Posted by Alternative Medicine on November 11, 2014 in Diseases with No Comments

A high prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been reported in lung transplant recipients and is possibly linked to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The etiology of posttransplant GER remains unknown but may occur due to the transplant operation or posttransplant medications, or represent preexisting GER disease. We evaluated these possibilities by studying the nature and severity of GER in a cohort of patients before and after lung transplantation. Gastroesophageal Reflux

Total, upright, and supine acid contact times were recorded in lung transplant recipients who underwent 24-h pH studies before and after transplantation. Patients also underwent esophageal manometry and gastric-emptying studies. Medications for acid suppression and gastric motility were discontinued before testing. Paired comparison between pretransplant and posttransplant results was performed using a paired t test.

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Twenty-three patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 51.5 years, and native diseases included emphysema (n = 11), cystic fibrosis (n = 4), pulmonary fibrosis (n = 3), and others (n = 5). Posttransplant studies occurred a median of 100 days after transplantation. After lung transplantation, the total acid contact time increased a mean of 3.7% (p = 0.03) and the supine acid contact time increased a mean of 6.4% (p = 0.019). Thirty-five percent (8 of 23 patients) had abnormal acid contact times before transplant, and 65% (15 of 23 patients) had abnormal acid contact after transplant. Changes in acid contact times were not explained by changes in esophageal or gastric motility. Only 20% (3 of 15 patients) with abnormal posttransplant pH studies were symptomatic.

There is a significant increase in GER after lung transplantation, as measured objectively by 24-h pH studies, despite a lack of symptoms in most patients. Further research is needed to determine the physiologic mechanisms of posttransplant GER and its impact on long-term allograft function.

GI complications are common after lung trans-plantation. They have included gastroparesis, diverticulitis, and GI bleeding. We have observed a high prevalence of GER in selected lung transplant recipients. It has previously been suggested that GER is associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syn-drome. Most reports have focused on the prevalence of esophageal dysmotility and delayed gastric emptying, with inadvertent partial or total surgical vagotomy as the suspected mechanism.

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Airway Tissue Mast Cells in Persistent Asthma

Posted by Alternative Medicine on October 14, 2014 in Asthma with No Comments

Patients or participants: Forty-five subjects with asthma recruited from six medical centers in the United States.

Interventions: The Asthma Clinical Research Network undertook a 28-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 164 subjects with clinically stable, persistent asthma. A subset of subjects (n = 45) underwent bronchoscopy with endobronchial biopsy and BAL at the end of a 6-week run-in period, during which all subjects received triamcinolone acetonide (TAA), 400 ^g bid. Airway tissue mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils CanadianHealthCareMalll, macrophages, and T cells were quantified morphometrically along with determination of BAL tryptase. At the end of the run-in period, subjects were then randomized to receive salmeterol (42 p,g bid), placebo, or continue TAA for 16 weeks followed by a second bronchoscopy.

Measurements and results: Outcome variables included airway tissue mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, and T cells that were quantified morphometrically and BAL tryptase. Thirty-five subjects completed the treatment phase; an additional 10 subjects, who were randomized to either salmeterol or placebo after the run-in, had treatment failure. When the bronchoscopy results performed at the end of the run-in, prior to randomization, were analyzed, the treatment failure group demonstrated significantly more tissue mast cells as compared to the nontreatment failure group despite 6 weeks of therapy with TAA (p = 0.04). BAL tryptase was also significantly higher in the treatment failure group (p < 0.0001). Of those subjects who completed the study, tissue mast cells and BAL tryptase did not change significantly within any of the treatment groups during the treatment phase (p > 0.05).

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Conclusions: Persistent elevations in airway tissue mast cells and BAL tryptase after treatment with TAA predict treatment failure in patients for whom discontinuation of ICS is being considered.

Abbreviations: ACRN = Asthma Clinical Research Network; ICS = inhaled corticosteroids; IL = interleukin; IQR = interquartile range; NAEPP = National Asthma Education and Prevention Program; PC20 = provocative concentration of methacholine resulting in a 20% fall in FEV1; PEF = peak expiratory flow; SOCS = Salmeterol or Corticosteroids; TAA = triamcinolone acetonide.

Human Body – Energies

Posted by Alternative Medicine on October 1, 2014 in Heath Care with No Comments

When a large quantity of energies gathers in one or the other side of your brain, you can influence alone yourselves. For example, if the electricity is accumulated in the right hemisphere of the brain, you shall not stroke your head by your right hand, in order not to increase your state, but you shall stroke the right side of your head by your left hand. And vice versa. If you have an excess of electricity in the left side of your head, you shall stroke it by your right hand. At this experiment, you will notice that you calm down and that you state is changing. That is why, during the summer, when the sun is shining violently over your head, stroke your hair by both hands. You will take out the electricity from the brain through your hands and you will avoid a sun stroke in this way. GlobalCanadianPharmacy – global viagra canadian pharmacy. More information on link.

As the brain is connected to all parts of the body, the polarization in some of its centres reflects right away in the relevant organs of the body, which, in this way, take part in the accumulation of energy. By knowing this, you shall look for a way for transferring the excessive energy in your organism from one centre to another.

There is a centre behind the ears of people, in which gathers more energy than it is needed. He becomes irritated, grumpy, and is ready to quarrel with everybody. If he can transform this energy and use it for some work, he will easily get rid of the anger. It is a special type of electrical energy. Look for a way of coping with the excessive energy round your ears. Begin to saw woods or to dig. If you cannot do that, touch the top of your nose 4 or 5 times. It is important to find a way to transform the energy of anger into work.

Sin is due to the personal feelings in someone. Personal feelings are a special sort of cosmic energy, which, if not transformed and distributed between all centres of the brain, causes an explosion. Near to the personal feelings is the centre of conscience, through which they have to pass. You shall learn the law of transforming of energies and direct them from one brain centre to another. You shall work the way Nature works. It has a certain time and place for everything. When one understands life, man obeys all laws and rules of Nature.

You are focus, through which the solar energies pass, as well as the Earth ones. The solar energies pass through you from the morning till noon. They come from up and go down to the centre of the Earth. In the afternoons, the movement is vice versa – the energies from the centre of the Earth pass through your legs and go up to the Sun. Hence, if you do certain movements in the morning and in the evening, you will have different results. Generally, bad spirits appear in the afternoons with some people, because the flows of the earth pass through them then.

Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer

Posted by Alternative Medicine on September 18, 2014 in Cancer, Health with No Comments

This is an area that is the subject of ongoing research. There are a number of treatment options that can be taken singly or sometimes in combination. All of these treatments have pluses and minuses. It is important to inform yourself fully about all the options, including the option of‘watchful waiting’, i.e. simply keeping an eye on your prostate. This can be a very reasonable option as many men with prostate cancer do not have aggressive forms of the condition and their condition grows so slowly that no active treatment is needed.

The decision to have active treatment and which type of treatment to undergo is an important decision that you should take in conjunction with your specialist, as side effects from these treatments by Viagra Australia can be significant. Surgery, radiotherapy and hormone therapy all have different side effects that need to be considered. These side effects include urinary incontinence, reduced ejaculation, lowered sex drive and long-term impotence, as well as hot flushes, tiredness and sweats.

Options include surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy or a combination of these treatments:

  • Surgical removal of the entire prostate is known as a ‘radical prostatectomy’. Complications from this can include impotence and urinary incontinence.
  • Radiotherapy can include either external beam radiotherapy, where the prostate is irradiated from outside the body, or more recently an option of placing small radioactive seeds into the prostate, which irradiate it from the inside out.
  • Hormone treatment can lower the testosterone levels (this is like giving the patient the male menopause). Drugs can be used to lower the level of testosterone in the blood, which has the effect of slowing or stopping the growth of the cancerous tumour. However, some prostate tumours develop the ability to grow without testosterone.

Research is ongoing into other potential treatments for prostate cancer. One such option may be a new drug called abiraterone. Early research suggests that this drug can shrink the prostate in men with prostate cancer. Large scale trials will be needed comparing this treatment to established treatment options to see if it really is a step forward.

Key Points

  • The prostate is an important gland for a man’s sexual health.
  • Many men lack knowledge and information about the prostate gland.
  • Disorders of the prostate gland, especially benign enlargement (BPH), are common, especially as men get older.
  • Be aware of the symptoms of prostate problems. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and is on the increase.
  • Often this cancer can be very slow-growing and difficult to diagnose.
  • The PSA blood test, when raised, can be an early marker of prostate cancer.
  • At present the jury is still out on the benefits of screening for prostate cancer.
  • Stay informed about your prostate health and discuss this issue with your doctor.

Is All Exercise the Same?

Posted by Alternative Medicine on September 16, 2014 in Health with No Comments

Weight or Strength Training

Weight training is very important for keeping our muscles and bones strong and healthy. As we get older, this becomes particularly important for upper body strength, which tends to naturally decline with age. Bodybuilding is not the aim. Two 15-minute sessions spaced out during the week are ideal. Put the emphasis on doing comfortable repetitions of low weights rather than going for broke on the Olympic bar. Press-ups are an excellent exercise for upper body strength. As with other forms of exercise, it is important not to overdo it. Listen to your own body and know the difference between a little bit of exercise-induced stiffness and the soreness that can come from an injury.

Flexibility Exercises

Stretching should be an essential part of any exercise programme, as it helps to keep the body loose and prevent injury. Working on and improving flexibility is also an important part of any rehabilitation programme after an injury. Exercises to strengthen the lower back and stomach muscles, often called core stabilisation exercises, are now recognised as being very important in injury prevention.

Stretching is also a great way to relax and unwind. The best stretching routine is the one that works best for you. Your doctor or physiotherapist can help you plan a specific programme for your needs. – buy medications in Australia now.

There is a much greater emphasis on incorporating a more holistic approach to healthcare today. This can be seen by the increasing popularity of yoga, Pilates and tai chi. Personally I have been impressed by some elderly patients who practise yoga, especially with regard to their degree of flexibility and suppleness. Don’t assume that yoga and Pilates are for women only, men can get the same health benefits from these activities.

How Much Exercise is Enough?

We were born to exercise. Primitive man was a hunter and gatherer and may have run many miles on a daily basis, gathering berries and escaping the clutches of lions and other wild beasts. However, this hunter-gatherer role has diminished as society has modernised, and now modern man can often spend his day sitting at a desk, behind a wheel of a car or slouched in front of a computer or TV screen. Of course this doesn’t describe all of us, but you get the picture. We need to be much more proactive about taking exercise. It is felt that we need at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise daily or on most days of the week, i.e. 210 minutes per week. This is what is needed to keep our hearts, bodies and minds healthy Viagra online. Moderate exercise means that you should get warm, but you don’t have to sweat.

Know Your Numbers

  • 30 minutes/day on most days (at least 5 times per week) or
  • 210 minutes/week of moderate exercise
  • 45-60 minutes/day if overweight or at risk of obesity
  • 60-90 minutes/day if obese
  • 10,000 steps equates to 5 miles/8 kilometres

Restoration of fertility

Posted by Alternative Medicine on September 9, 2014 in Health with No Comments

Follicle culture

Any culture strategy designed to support the complete IVG of oocytes and follicles from cryopreserved tissues must mimic the sequence of events and cellular checkpoints that the follicles and oocytes would normally be exposed to in vivo. The growth rates, cell–cell signalling and metabolic turnover of follicles and oocytes grown in vitro must correspond to the parameters of similar cells grown to maturity in the body nolvadex canada. During their extended growth phase, oocytes progressively synthesize and accumulate the payload of proteins and acids (RNAs), which are required to support production of a fertile gamete and the preimplantation development of the early embryo. Furthermore, there are stage-specific changes in genomic imprinting during oocyte growth in vivo that must be replicated in oocytes grown in vitro.

Despite these stringent biological requirements, significant advances have been made in IVG technologies. Encouraging results have been obtained in laboratory species. In contrast, progress in IVG in large animals and humans is far slower than that observed in rodents, as ruminant and human oocytes are much larger eggs, which take many months to acquire their fertile potential. Nevertheless, in both sheep and humans it is now possible to: initiate and maintain primordial follicle growth over extended periods; induce antral cavity formation in preantral follicles; induce appropriate levels of steroid biosynthesis after provision of suitable substrates. Importantly, extensive validation studies carried out on isolated sheep follicles have revealed that IVG can be achieved with equal efficiency using both fresh and cryopreserved tissue. Electron microscopy has also shown that the in vitro-grown cells have a similar morphology to oocytes and follicles grown in vivo. Further advances in IVG technology will soon enable us to determine if the oocytes derived following cryopreservation and IVG of human ovarian cortex are healthy and fertile.

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Loss of ovarian function and reduction of fertile potential in young patients can be combated by the development of strategies to quantify the risk of ovarian damage, to protect the gonads from the destructive effects of medical treatments and, in extreme cases, to cryopreserve fertility. Advances in fertility preservation methods for young patients will inevitably be dependent on the development of an improved understanding of the effects on the ovary of contemporary treatments, as exposure to cytotoxic agents is frequently unavoidable prior to a window of safety being available for oocyte and ovarian tissue harvesting. Furthermore, the development of a safe clinical strategy to preserve the fertility of all young patients, irrespective of diagnosis, has to be based around high-quality basic research into the biology and technology of oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation and its safe and cheap viagra canada online  and efficient use to restore fertility. Future research topics are therefore likely to include: development of new diagnostics to test the gonadotoxicity of treatments such as those offered to cancer patients; development of accurate methods to predict the lifespan of autografts; determination of the optimum location of autografts; assessment of the impact of patient age on the efficiency of the freezing, thawing and grafting or IVG processes; quantification of the consequences of prior exposure to chemo- or radiotherapies; and evaluation of the normality of uterine function and the contribution of the uterus to implantation post-treatment.

Models of Erectile Dysfunction

Posted by Alternative Medicine on May 26, 2014 in Erectile Dysfunction with No Comments


Hypercholesterolemia and subsequent atheroscle-rosis are well-recognized risk factors for the devel-opment of vasculogenic ED. Viagra online in Australia Rarely is hypercholesterolemia-associated ED in men seen in isolation, without other risk factors such as obesity, smoking, age, and diabetes. Rabbits are the most used species in hypercholesterolemia. A high cholesterol/high triglyceride diet, sometimes com-bined with balloon injury of the aortoiliac arteries, is used to induce atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial supply to the penis. This results in the impairment of endothelium-dependent cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation and agonist-induced penile erection with papaverine. These defects could not be explained solely by the occlusion of blood flow, but were also accompanied by defects in smooth muscle signaling.

Cavernous Nerve Injury

Due to the high prevalence of ED following pelvic surgery as a result of injury to the neurovascular bundle, there has been a great interest in models of cavernous injury. The goal is to identify the mechanisms leading to the ED (e.g., penile apotosis and fibrosis), as well as identifying meth-ods of preventing these pathological changes or remediating them. The most widely used animal model of cavernous nerve injury (CNI) is the cav-ernous nerve-injured rat model. Injury can be induced by crush, cut or freezing rat models. Through a lower abdominal midline incision, the posterolateral area of the prostate is exposed on both sides and the major pelvic ganglions and cavernous nerves are identified. The cavernous nerves, unilaterally or bilaterally, are either sharply divided with knives to remove a segment of nerve, cauterized, or frozen using a thermocouple. ED-observed postradical prostatectomy is most likely attributed to changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle cells from a loss in neural integrity. The absence of neural input to the penis after CNI in the rat results in cavernosal smooth muscle apoptosis, alterations in the endothelium and smooth muscle function, decrease in neuronal NOS nerve fibers in the penis, pelvic ganglia, and fibrosis. The CNI rat model has led to a more thorough understanding of the pathophysiological sequences involved in the development of postradical prostatectomy ED.

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Androgens are necessary for the maintenance of the mammalian erectile response. In most animals, androgens are essential in maintaining sexual behavior. However, evidence shows that androgens are also necessary to maintain the erectile apparatus of the penis. Effects of castration on sexual function are evaluated by the observation of copulatory behaviors, penile reflex, and erectile response electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Particularly in the rat model, androgens act centrally to support copulatory behavior and peripherally to maintain constitutive NOS activity and support the veno-occlusive mechanisms. Thus, the erectile response in the rat is androgen dependent. Castrated rats have been used as models to study venoocclusive dysfunction because cavernosal sinusoidal smooth muscle fails to fully relax and blood flow continues during erection in castrated rats, suggesting the failure of venoocclusion. Despite these reports of the importance of androgens in the erectile response of laboratory animals, the role of androgens in the maintenance of the human erectile response remains controversial. Even in severely hypogonadal men, the erectile response is not always lost. Therefore, the hypogonadal animal model of ED may be best utilized as a model of venoocclusive ED.


A large number of models exist for the study of male sexual function. Each model has both strengths and limitations. Care must always be taken before extrapolating too quickly from experimental data to a seemingly parallel clinical situation. Practical considerations have led to a great reliance on rodent models viagra in Canada. These have the advantage of cost, ease of handling, and a large foundation of biological knowledge. There are rodent models for examining every aspect of penile erection from higher neural control down to molecular events within the erectile tissue. The disadvantage of rodent models is that they do not always accurately reflect human physiology and pathophysiology, although they seem to share many basic mechanisms. Therefore, the validation of any given model must be assessed for a particular application. The utility of these models is amply demonstrated by the great expansion of our understanding of male sexual physiology in recent years. Future challenges will be to develop more models of pathophysiological conditions.